Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Effects Of Workplace Stress On The United Kingdom Courts

This study examined workplace stress in a random sample of litigated cases heard in the United Kingdom courts. The majority of claims related to clinical depression. The alleged causes of workplace stress most commonly cited in litigation included: excessive workload, followed by poor management practices, organisational, economic or technical change, aggressive management style, and bullying by co-workers. The presence of effective workplace stress management policies were important interventions that played a particularly significant role in avoiding legal action and reducing the detrimental experience of employees. A significant finding was that 94 per cent of the cases were found in favour of the employer as the defendant. Implications for managerial practice are suggested. This analysis of seventy-five cases between 2002-2014 will shed valuable light on the nature of workplace stress claims litigated in the courts and the likely chance of success in such cases. Keywords: workplace stress .litigated cases.managerial . behaviour . legal rights Relevance of the Study Since Karasek’s landmark paper appeared in 1979, stress in the work environment has received considerable attention in a wide variety of academic literature studies as being a significant issue for employers, workers, and wider society (Karasek, 1979; Siegrist, 1985; Johnson Hall, 1988; McCaig Harrington, 1998; Smith 2001; de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, Bongers, 2008). There is evidence fromShow MoreRelatedThe Rights And Duties Of The Employees And Employers Essay1459 Words   |  6 Pagesget remedy through the interference of court. Besides Primary legislations enacted in UK, It works with the compliance of legislations of EU, custom, usage, bye laws, rules or International treaties ratified by the UK government. In determination of contractual liabilities Employment Law mitigates the dispute arising between two parties from various institutions and organizations, workplace. Rational practice of Environmental Law will save the cost and stress in the employment proc edures. Read MoreNoise Pollution1508 Words   |  7 Pagesentertainment systems, electric  megaphones, and loud people. Contents  [hide] * 1  Effects * 1.1  Human health * 1.2  Environment * 2  Impact in the United Kingdom * 3  Mitigation and control of noise * 4  Legal status * 5  See also * 6  References * 7  External links | ------------------------------------------------- [edit]Effects [edit]Human health Main article:  Noise health effects Noise health effects  are both  health  and  behavioral  in nature.[citation needed]  The unwanted soundRead MoreMedicines Act Of 1968 And The Uk2251 Words   |  10 Pageswhich governs the control, manufacture and supply of medicines in the UK. It was introduced to help control the use of medicinal compounds and to increase patient safety, although much of it has been modernized and repealed. It also gives power to the courts to charge any dispensing mistakes as a criminal offence. Section 64 (1) of the Act states that â€Å"No person shall, to the prejudice of the purchaser, sell any medicinal product which is not of the nature or quality demanded by the purchaser (The MedicinesRead MoreDefining and Measuring Crime1557 Words   |  7 Pageshaving a history for being inaccurately represented. To aid the precision of violent crime data, victimization surveys are circulated to the public, this facilitates for a section of unreported crime to be anonymously reported minimizing the emotional stress of public recollection. General trends in data show that across all forms of violent crime men aged 19-24 are the most likely to offend, and similarly men aged 19-24 are also the most victimized. In most cases including assault and homicide this isRead MoreSex Crimes2211 Words   |  9 Pagesoffense in the Western world. A perpetrator committed in the act of forcible intercourse is known as a rapist. According to the American Medical Association, rape victims tend to avoid reporting a violation, often times out of shame or self-blame. The United States Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that ninety-one percent of all U.S. rape victims are female with nine percent that are male, and ninety-nine percent of the perpetrators are male. Medline: Sexual Assault: A comprehensive descriptionRead MorePrinciples of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings.3752 Words   |  16 Pagespotential effects of discrimination can be different for different people. The effects can be physical, emotional or a combination of both. For example children with disabilities may not be given a chance to join in with activities due to others thinking that their disability prevents them from being able to do so. This will make the child feel very different from others. I have listed other possible effects below: * Feeling isolated * Low self-esteem * Depression * Fear of rejection * Stress * LowRead MoreEmployment Law Assignment Essay4309 Words   |  18 Pagesï » ¿Contents Page Introduction 2 Explain the aims and objective of employment regulation 2 3 Describe the role played by the tribunal and courts system in enforcing employment law 3 Explain how cases are settled before and during legate procedures 4 Summary 4 Describe when and how a contract can be changed lawfully 5 Explain the main requirements of redundancy law 6 Explain the main requirements of the law Business Transfers 7 Summary 8 Identify the major requirements of Health and SafetyRead MoreMerger Between Staples And Office Depot2589 Words   |  11 PagesProposed Merger between Staples and Office Depot Leads to Concerns of Higher Prices The effect and impact of corporate mergers of companies can be a significant change for the company’s prosperity and growth as well as the consumer’s point of view also. Though few of the mergers and acquisitions might be helpful for the company and be profitable as well there are always few risks and failures that come with the process. According to a study the company has only 50% chance of success when it comesRead MoreStarbuckss Successful Importation And Operation Of The Starbucks Company1783 Words   |  8 PagesStarbucks has become a very popular and high quality coffee chain store in Mainland China, since it come from the United States in 1999. The author based on the visual, aesthetic and PESTLE theory, discussing the successful importation and operation of the Starbucks company. Keywords: Starbucks; Aesthetic; PESTLE; Mainland China Introduction Starbucks corporation was found in 1971, in the United States, and it is one of current the most popular coffee store, roaster, brand proprietor in the world. StarbucksRead MoreAn Assignment on the Hrm Strategic Impact on the Royal Mail3535 Words   |  15 PagesAND POLICIES The essay is about the Universal postal firm in United Kingdom named the â€Å"Royal Mail† and its Human Resource Management Strategy and policies from 2005-2010. The essay starts with an Introduction and includes certain other factors which are mentioned below including its Competition, credit crunch and the measures taken by the Royal Mail to face all these Obstacles. Introduction:- Royal mail is the United Kingdom s national postal service which was established in 1516 by Henry

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Effects Of Animal Abuse On A Slaughterhouse - 918 Words

Few weeks ago, I watched a video clips about animal abuse in a slaughterhouse. It is so terrified the way people abuse animals and kill them either by manual or machine. Remarkably, these horrified images are obsessing me many days after. I just have a thought that why we need to kill animal for meat. Later on, I have found some research show that there are certain reasons which humans should not kill animals. Food is the only nutritional source to maintain human s’ life, and eating meat is one of critical food supplies to nourish our bodies. However, scientists have proven that humans are not physically created to consume it. In order to prove this fact, scientists brought the evidence that unlike carnivores that have sharp front teeth for tearing, without flat molar teeth for grinding, humans have no sharp front teeth, but they do have flat rear molars for grinding. The dog and cat as familiar examples for it. We can see that they have long, pointed canine teeth for catching prey and tearing the flesh. It turns out that humans are not omnivores; we are naturally herbivores instead. In fact, scientists have proven that our bodies digest system does not biologically support for eating meat, especially red meat. Carnivores, on the other hand, they have their natural strong acidic from stomach kill immediately bacteria from the meat, while humans also have acidic but it is weaken and only for digest fruit and vegetables. Another study indicates that due to our intestinesShow MoreRelatedEating Animals By Jonathan Safran Foer Essay1608 Words   |  7 PagesFoer in his book Eating Animals, illustrates the effects factory farming has had on animals meant for human consumption. Furthermore, Foer asks many questions to the reader on what will it take for us to change our ways before we say enough is enough. The questions individuals need to be asking themselves are: how do we deal with the problem of factory farming, and what can people do to help solve these issues? Eric Schlosser in Fast Food Nation, also illustrates the animal abuse that goes unseen withinRead MoreAnimal Cruelty : The Dangers Of Animal Welfare914 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal welfare is a troubling ongoing argument in today’s society. The suffering inflicted on animals by people is disheartening. Animal welfare doesn’t only pertain to an animal’s physical state but also to its psychological well-being. â€Å"An animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior† (Animal Welfare, 2017). However, this is not the case in many establishments. Animals are suffering from pain, fear, and most commonly,Read MoreThe Effects Of A Nation s Industrialized Food System Essay1628 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of a Nation’s Industrialized Food System Our nation’s modern industrial farming has become more than only feeding people; it has become a way for the food industry to make more money as human population continues to grow. The food industry has transformed not only how people eat, but also has had negative effect on our climate as a result of factory farming as illustrated by Anna Lappe in â€Å"The Climate Crisis at the End of Our Fork†. Jonathan Safran Foer in his book Eating Animals, illustratesRead MoreEating Animals By Eric Schlosser Essay1697 Words   |  7 Pagesnot just altered the American diet, but it has also had a negative effect within the labor sector as well as the animals meant for consumption and the lack of government oversight. Eric Schlosser in Fast Food Nation, and Jonathan Foer in Eating Animals, illustrate the mistreatment of labor workers as well as the animal abuse that goes unseen within the food industry. Foer gives such examples of employees who work in slaughterhouses giving accoun ts of what goes on in the kill floors, and stories ofRead MoreLife And Death Of A Broiler Chicken Essay1403 Words   |  6 PagesThe Life and Death of a Broiler Chicken Autumn Baucom What comes to mind when you think of animal abuse? Many will say dogs, cats, and many other common household pets when in reality it is not only the animals we cuddle but the ones we eat too. When you are considering animal abuse you generally don’t think of chickens, but it is a bigger problem then you would imaging.Chicken meat is one of the most populare meat but, countless chickens around the world endure pain, and suffering in their dailyRead MoreAnimal Cruelty in Slaughter Houses Essay1761 Words   |  8 PagesDraft 2 What are currently the poor conditions for animals in the American slaughterhouses, what are the causes of these conditions, and what are the best methods for preventing slaughterhouse cruelty? The conditions for animals in modern slaughterhouses are unsanitary and violent. The lack of rules and regulations cause animals to be treated poorly because this industry is focused on mass production and profit rather than finding a more humane alternative to run the meat packing businessRead MoreThe Effects Of Animal Cruelty On The Workplace2140 Words   |  9 PagesJoie Camalo English 1A Summer 2014 July 20, 2014 Research Essay Abuse in the Workplace To this company an arm is only worth thirty seven thousand dollars, and a finger is only worth two thousand. In America there are a number of organizations that are put together to stop animal cruelty, to protect not only domestic animals but also protect the ones that live in the wild from poachers or hunters. But how many organizations are there for stopping human cruelty? This may be a bizarre concept toRead MoreMore than Just Creatures that Coexist with Humans1475 Words   |  6 Pagesluxuries. Without them humanity cannot survive.† This goes for animals too. Animals are now much more than creatures we coexist with on Earth. They are companions within our homes and hearts. Any living species has rights. Just as you and I deserve respect, animals do also. When you think of animal farms, most of us resort to the image of animals and chickens on Old McDonald’s farm with a bright red barn in the background. However, animals have not always been in agriculture. In fact today, farmingRead MoreEssay on Slaughterhouse Blues: Book Review1587 Words   |  7 PagesMo . [Email address] Mo . [Email address] ANTH 3330 S. Metress ANTH 3330 S. Metress Slaughterhouse Blues: Book Review Michael Farhoud Slaughterhouse Blues: Book Review Michael Farhoud In Slaughterhouse Blues, anthropologist Donald Stull and social geographer Michael Broadway explore the advent, history, and implications of modern food production. The industrialized system behind what we eat is one of the most controversial points of political interest in our society today. Progressions in productiveRead MoreThe Chain By Ted Genoways1575 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"I think using animals for food is an ethical thing to do, but we ve got to do it right. We ve got to give those animals a decent life and we ve got to give them a painless death. We owe the animal respect.† ― Temple Grandin. Temple Grandin brings up a brilliant point, it’s okay to eat meat but it’s not okay to treat these animals throughout their life as just something that you will be killing. They have the right to live healthily and in a property environment. Throughout the novel The Chain

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Harry S. Trumans Accomplishments Dessegregation and...

The actions and decisions made by the United States President, leader of the free world, are subject to be analyzed, scrutinized, and debated for the rest of eternity. These decisions are how that man will be judged. Out of the 44 men to hold this honored position, one man, Harry S. Truman, made several proclamations such as the institution of Desegregation in the US Military, the dropping the atomic bombs, and the declaration of the Martial Law, which forever changed our society and the world as we know it. One of Truman’s greatest accomplishments is when he desegregated the Armed Services. Throughout history, African Americans have fought side by side with Honor, Courage, and Commitment, but were never recognized for the role that†¦show more content†¦Harry Truman had always been for the fair treatment of all, this is why he used his power and influence to expedite the process of desegregation. In October 1953, eight years after his executive order was proposed, the Army announced that it has 95 percent of all African Americans serving in integrated units. Throughout years of debates regarding his executive order; Truman had changed the way the military looked at segregation and made it what it is today. Along with desegregating the Armed Services, Truman was known for authorizing the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One of the worst and most devastating weapons ever created was being built underneath his nose while he had been vice president. Truman would have to make a decision that would change the world forever; dropping the atomic bomb would instantly extinguish hundreds of thousands of lives, and would leave permanent effects on the people living there for years to come. The launch of the bomb would also lead the world into economically matching the power of the United States, which would lead to more of these bombs being created throughout the world to counter the United States; this decision could even lead to the creation of another world war. Although the Manhattan Project had been building and testing nuclear capability in weapons for years, the first tactical

Civil Disobedience And The Civil Rights Movement - 1099 Words

What does it mean to be civil disobedient people have many different interpretations of it? To be civil disobedient is to refuse to follow certain laws or to not pay any taxes or fines. It is a form of peaceful political protest you are trying to get someone s attention, in this case, the government. You are trying to make them listen to you and when they do not listen you do not do what they say. That’s what Thoreau did he grabbed their attention the only way he knows how he criticized their policies and did not pay taxes. He wanted to no part of the government and their actions he dissociated himself from them. He believes when the government or law is unjust people should refuse to follow the rule. And distance them. I believe civil disobedience has come a long way, but it is still to me the same thing when it was first mentioned. It Is expressed in certain American literature and throughout history, such as the civil rights movement. Civil disobedience still has the same meaning it had before throughout all these years. It s been relevant before and is more so now especially in our own country and in literature. On the news, you see protests hopping over civil rights like in Ferguson and with the bringing down of the confederate flag by Bree Newsome. Martian Luther King’s â€Å"Letter From A Birmingham Jail† show what they did and why they did it. They did what they had to do because they believed it was the right thing and it changed history and our own lives.Show MoreRelatedCivil Disobedience And The Civil Rights Movement867 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the Civil Rights Movement, King and many of his followers and fellow activists deeply followed the path of non-violent protest, otherwise known as civil disobedience. After being arrested during the 1963 Birmingham Campaign, King received a series of critiques from fellow clergymen stating their disapproval of his actions. Of course, Ki ng addressed a letter, now more commonly known as â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail†, to his critics as well as the nation in order to defend his ideology. ThoughRead MoreCivil Disobedience And The Civil Rights Movement881 Words   |  4 PagesIn Thoreau s essay Civil Disobedience he makes the point that bystanders are just as bad as criminals and that people should stand against unjust crimes even if it means going against the law. And to some extent I do agree because in the past people have broken unjust laws and have created change. A well-known example would be when Rosa Parks sat on the bus in the White-only seating area, which lead to important events that helped push the Civil Rights movement forward. But I think that it dependsRead MoreThe Role Of Civil Disobedience And The Civil Rights Movement1503 Words   |  7 PagesRanging from peaceful marches to powerful acts of civil disobedience, not only in the United States but in Central American countries such as Nicar agua. This being said, civil protests and peaceful demonstrations were not necessarily more successful in exuding change than pieces of legislation but moreso acted as a catalyst for social change, leading towards legislation that would positively impact those who protested. The concept of civil disobedience and peaceful demonstration acting as a catalystRead MoreWhat Makes A Breach Of Law An Act Of Civil Disobedience?1383 Words   |  6 Pagesact of civil disobedience? When is civil disobedience morally justified?† These are the basic questions that are asked when dealing with civil disobedience. According to John Rawls, civil disobedience is a nonviolent breach of laws by the public in order to reform or change laws or government policies. But Rawls’ concept of civil disobedience is too narrow. This raises many questions. Why should civil disobedience be non-violent? Why does the public play a large role in civil disobedience? This paperRead MoreThe Need For Civil Di sobedience Essay1287 Words   |  6 PagesTo grasp the meaning of Civil Disobedience one would have to say that it means the refusal to obey the civil laws so that the government can change the policy or legislation, characterized by the use of. I have read Thoreau’s essay on civil disobedience and the obligation that your conscience mind follows and in reading this it states that people should not let the governments overrule or atrophy their consciences and that we as people are obligated to not allow the government to make them agentsRead MoreAffirmative Case : Civil Disobedience1328 Words   |  6 PagesAffirmative Case: Civil Disobedience Mahatma Gandhi once stated, â€Å"Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as cooperation with good.† Because I agree I must affirm the resolution that reads, â€Å"Resolved: Civil disobedience in a democracy is morally justified.† Affirming achieves the value of ‘morality,’ defined from Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary as,† The quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct† My value criterion is a legitimate government for all. A democraticRead MoreEssay on Civil Disobedience1532 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Civil disobedience is the term assigned to actions taken by individuals to sway public opinion about laws that individuals deem unfair or unjust. Actions taken are usually nonviolent, and can include sit-ins, mass demonstrations, picket lines, and marches. Citizens are acting on their consciences, demonstrating highly advanced moral reasoning skills. Generally, these advanced skills fall into Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development, Stage Five and Six in particular. Characteristics ofRead MoreCivil Disobedience And The Apartheid1428 Words   |  6 Pages Throughout history, civil disobedience has been used to bring about change across a wide variety of civil rights issues. In India, Mahatma Gandhi used civil disobedience to nonviolently protest against the British Raj and, after a thirty-year struggle, earn independence both for himself and his people. In the United States, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. employed civil disobedience to overcome both the Jim Crow laws that had oppressed the African-American minority and the systemic racism that wasRead MoreCivil Disobedience: Cost of Change1469 Words   |  6 Pages2013 Civil Disobedience: The cost of change More than 40,000 strong activists from the Sierra Club protested at the White House to reject the Keystone XL Pipeline proposal. They protested because they the extraction of tar sand oil and moving it from Canada to Texas will pollute the groundwater in the surface (Hammel). Civil disobedience is â€Å"the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power† (Civil Disobedience). ThroughoutRead MoreBreaking the Law or Civil Desobedience Essay example1642 Words   |  7 Pagescreate a just, moral change. Whenever a law is deemed unjust, there is good reason for breaking it to achieve justice. Civil Disobedience will never be legal and those who employ it should be willing to accept the penalty that comes with breaking a law. It has been shown through historic cases, modern examples, and the core values of a democratic society that show Civil Disobedience not only works, but should be used as a tool to demonstrate the moral objectives that are being sought. Considering some

Free Economics Dissertation Topics Free Essays

1.0. Introduction The aim of this guide is to assist in selecting an Economics dissertation topic and to provide practical advice on how to go about writing a dissertation. We will write a custom essay sample on Free Economics Dissertation Topics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Economics dissertations incorporate numerous topics covering various aspects of the two main branches of the subject: macroeconomics, which focuses on national or aggregate economy concerning issues of inflation, unemployment and business cycle. On the other hand microeconomics concentrates on markets and issues such as pricing, industry concentration and labour employment. Typically, writing an economics dissertation involves questions such as how to report the features of the design and how to adequately report research results. Consequently, the latter part of the guide serves as a handy reference source to navigate the writer through the process. 2.0. Categories and dissertation titles 2.1. Macroeconomics 2.1.1. An investigation into the demographic dominance of youth unemployment in South Africa. A quantitative study 2.1.2. Is the imposition of sanctions on Zimbabwe to be blamed for hyperinflationA critical review of the current literature 2.1.3. Assessing the plausibility of GDP as a proxy indicator of human development and well-being. An exploration of complementary indicators to the GDP metric 2.1.4. Analysing the adequacies of income/consumption patterns as a national measurement for poverty. A study of Uganda 2.1.5. An investigation into the impact of low interest rates on conventional savings. Has low UK interest rates discouraged savings? 2.2. Microeconomics 2.2.1. The impact of price elasticity on demand for Fair trade products. Determining UK consumer preparedness to pay more for Fair Trade products than conventional substitutes 2.2.2. Identifying appropriate poverty alleviation measures for Haiti. An applied general equilibrium approach 2.2.3. An assessment of the correlation between information asymmetry and corporate governance structure. A case of firm performance in Botswana 2.2.4. A review of the regulatory environment in Ireland. Regulatory failure and the Irish banking crisis 2.2.5. Internal devaluation to quantify Eurozone imbalances: A study of fiscal devaluation as a solution for the Greek financial crisis 2.3. Development Economics 2.3.1. Investigations into IMF debt sustainability framework for low-income countries. The Implications of defining debt in terms of ability to pay 2.3.2. The impact of climate change on economic development. How have frequent cyclones and floods impeded economic development in Bangladesh? 2.3.3. An empirical analysis of private-sector driven economic growth and poverty alleviation in Zambia 2.3.4. An assessment of foreign direct investment as an enabler of economic growth in Malawi. The Opportunities and challenges 2.3.5. Foreign aid and economic development in Mozambique. An empirical study correlating aid with economic growth 2.4. Economic Policy 2.4.1. Readdressing regional economic imbalances. Rebalancing England’s North/South divide with regional growth fund policy measures 2.4.2. An examination of the extent of convergence in the Eurozone as reflected in membership state differentiations in inflation and output growths. The implications of the single monetary policy and national economic policies of member-states 2.4.3. How viable is the achievement of macroeconomic convergence in African countries for the African Monetary Cooperation Program objective to accomplish collective policy measures for a harmonised monetary system? 2.4.4. Conceiving supportive economic policy measures for demographic transition patterns in the UK. Legislating for growing old age dependency 2.4.5. An assessment of inflation targeting and economic policy in Argentina. Formulating and promoting a macroeconomic framework 2.5. International Trade 2.5.1. An examination of the influence exerted by post –apartheid South African trade policy on the composition and aggregate growth of trade. An empirical study 2.5.2. A study of international trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Examining the consequences of globalisation 2.5.3. An analysis of the impact of trade liberalisation and trade performance. The application of import and export demand models in the Turkish economic context 2.5.4. Exposing and overcoming corrupt exploitation of natural resources in international trade systems of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A review of the current literature 2.5.5. An examination of the challenges and opportunities of international trade in the agricultural sector of developing countries: The Jamaican banana production and export market 3. How to Structure an Economics Dissertation, Tips For details on how to structure your economics dissertation, kindly check out the following post: How to Structure a dissertation (chapters) How to structure a dissertation (chapters and subchapters) How to structure a dissertation research proposal How to cite Free Economics Dissertation Topics, Essays

International relations Essay Example For Students

International relations Essay By Rishana Balkisson Mark Simpson looks at the evolution of International relations Essay as a study and the methods that scholars have over the decades used to study I.R. Judging from this analysis, do International Relations have any relevance in the 21st century? Justify your answer. We are now living in the 21st century, our world has been through two major world wars and we are still fighting many wars and battles. It has been found that many countries come together as a team and then end their relationships with blood in their hands. Presidents from all round the glob come together to celebrate or to negotiate deals. We also have the United Nations, which is an international power which is made up of the different nations to help the countries that need help. International trade takes place between all the different countries so that we receive the benefits that other countries offer. There has been much debate between positivist theorists among themselves as Rationalists and Post Positivist theorists as Reflectivist also among themselves, both still existent today. But in the present day there seems to be a new theory that intends to bridge the gap. Known as Social Constructivism. Using theoretical frameworks and methodology from both sides. Very rationalist in its ways and not very cosy with Reflectivist, though it has been said that this theory has become prevalent. On the grounds that European integration seems to be the best place to test it. Bearing in mind it is a very new theory and it requires some refining and much more contributions in respect of knowledge. Thus far, IR terminology has occurred very often and I intend to clarify this in detail. But more importantly tackle the focus on what contributions, social constructivism has made to the study international relations? IR scholars wish to be exempt from the extreme methodological debate and have introduced middle ground. This is found in the attempt to introduce Social constructivism as it has already been contained in a definition of sociology by Max Weber (1964:88) A science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action in order to arrive at a casual explanation of its course and effects. However, Social constructivism, it has been said needs to show more to be accepted as the middle ground in researching social phenomena. I intend to define the difference in position between two methodological positions Positivism and Post Positivism with the relevance of epistemology and ontology and other related terminology in the research of social phenomena. This will then illustrate the introduction of social constructivism and its relevance and the contribution it has made to the study of social phenomena in international relations. Positivism is the most influential school of thought; scientific methods are used to conduct investigations and research in international relations. Using empirical data for introducing theories, the epistemology and ontology is explaining objectively. Dominant theories such as Realism and Pluralism have come from the work of scholars under the positivists school of thought. Both, of which are rational theories and very constitutive to international relations. There are many sub theories under the category of Realism and Pluralism; this has given rise to much debate among rationalists recently. Most recognised as the inter paradigm debate of Neo-Realists and Neo-Liberalists. The neo-neo debate is very modern as these are the refined theories of the traditional Realist and Liberalist theories. The rationalists have explicitly rejected the work of post positivistic research for epistemological and ontological reasons. .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .postImageUrl , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:hover , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:visited , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:active { border:0!important; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:active , .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059 .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uea4a4a884a240eb804395ea379422059:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Iliad EssayThere has been much development in liberalism, one such type of liberalism is that of utopian. Widely known as Wilsonian idealism founder of the league of nation along with the French and British. Subsequently after the First World War, this is reminiscent of the work from Immanuel Kant in perpetual peace. The idea is to bring Democracy and self-determination to the world and an international organization to resolve disputes. This effectively brings interdependence on a global stage such as previous .

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Olive Branch Petition free essay sample

The Olive Branch Petition, Which was drafted on July 5th, 1775, was a major turning point in the progress of the American Revolution. The petition may also be referred to the â€Å"The Second Petition to the King† or â€Å"The Humble Petition† (Olive Branch Petition). The outcome and reactions to the Olive Branch Petition fueled and created new feelings and tensions between the American colonies and Great Britain. The significance of the Olive Branch petition can be broken down into the reasons for composing a petition of negotiation and the outcome due to English and Colonial reactions. The Olive Branch Petition is considered one of the most important and influential documents of the American Revolution (lively 226). The petition was the last chance the colonists gave the British for a peaceful negotiation (The Olive Branch Petition, 1775). In summarization of the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists wanted the American colonies to be a more self-governed province, yet to maintain their loyalty and patriotic support to their â€Å"mother country†. We will write a custom essay sample on The Olive Branch Petition or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Due to the lack of a representative in the English parliament the American colonies wanted to be free of parliamentary authority, particularly the laws being made regarding the taxation policies in the states (Sosin 205). The Olive Branch Petition was composed in hopes that a written document could peacefully resolve the disagreements between the English government and the colonists (Olive Branch Petition). The Petition was signed by 48 representatives from each colony, excluding Georgia. Among the 48 signatures on the petition were John Adams, Stephen Hopkins, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson (The Olive Branch Petition, 1775). Thomas Jefferson was the first to compose the Olive Branch Petition, but John Dickinson found his diction too offensive. Dickinson revised the petition and became the author (Olive Branch Petition). Dickinson was categorized within the Continental Congress as a moderate. Moderates still believed that a tranquil negotiation could be reached, while the radicals of the Continental Congress believed that the only possible course of action would be a full scale rebellion. Contrary to the hopefulness of the moderates that the King of England, King George III, would take the petition to heart the radicals believed that no positive outcome could result from such gesture (Lively 266). The true importance of the Olive Branch petition is defined due to the reactions that were devised. Two original copies of the Olive Branch Petition were written. A few days after the petition had been adopted Richard Penn and Arthur Lee sailed to England on two separate ships, each containing a copy of the petition, and delivered the petition to Lord Dartmouth. Dartmouth was the cabinet secretary over all colonial affairs (lively 266). The Olive Branch Petition, presented by Lord Dartmouth, reached King George III on July 8th, 1775 (Olive Branch Petition). The petition was delivered to the king after the Battle of Lexington and Concord and The battle of Bunker Hill, causing the King George III to be infuriated with his colonies. His intensified anger due to the rebelling colonies King George III was blinded to the proposal and refused to even open or consider the petition (Lively 266). A letter by John Adams expressing the Olive Branch Petition was an ineffective effort and that a war was inevitable was intercepted and delivered to the king. King George III used this document to prove the colonists were insincere in their efforts for peaceful negotiation (Olive Branch Petition). The colonies were declared by the king to be officially in a rebellion and the Olive Branch Petition had officially been pronounced ineffective. King George III addressed parliament concerning the petition on October 26, 1775 saying â€Å"It is now become the part of wisdom, and (in its effects) of clemency, to put a speedy end to these disorders by the most decisive exertions.† Soon after this quote the War for Independence would begin (The Olive Branch Petition, 1775). Penn and Lee returned to the colonies on September 2, 1775 bearing the news of their failure in convincing King George III to comply which spread throughout the Americas to the colonists. The colonists also learned that the king had refused to consider any possible negotiations. This recognition by the colonist s created a significant reaction in the American colonies. The ignorance of King George III stimulated rebellious and revolutionary ideas in the colonies. Within the Continental Congress all hopes of the moderates desisted. This caused the two major factions, the radicals and the moderates, to unify and become pro revolutionary (lively 266). The Olive Branch petition is a pivotal point in American history. The reactions to the Olive Branch Petition clearly define a surge in colonial support for independence from English parliament. The ignorance of King George III of the colonist’s peaceful negotiation proposal clearly indicated to the Americans of King George III’s and the English government’s selfish intents to take advantage of the colonies by â€Å"taxation without representation†. When fathoming what may have happened if the idea of composing the Olive Branch petition had been bypassed, the path of American history could have taken a considerably different route, most likely for the worst for the colonial people. Without the king’s denial to read the Olive Branch Petition, the radical leaders such as John Adams would have no concrete evidence of England’s ill intents to rally revolutionary support behind. The king’s reaction to the petition brought a large portion of the colonists to the realization that the radicals were right. Without this evidence many colonists would remain loyalists, deprecating the support for the Revolutionary War. With a large population of the colonists still loyal to the king, if the Revolutionary War had broken out the rebels would have to deal with a much larger resistance within the colonies. Bibliography Lively, Robert. â€Å"Olive Branch petition†. Encyclopedia of American History. Volume III. Facts on File Incorporated, 2003. â€Å"Olive Branch Petition†. Wikipedia, The Free encyclopedia. 13 Oct. 2007. Sosin, Jack. Agents and Merchants. University of Nebraska Printing Press Lincoln, 1965. â€Å"The Olive Branch Petition, 1775†. Gopetition. 13 Oct. 2007.